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Heavy industry

Heavy industry is an industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities ; or complex or numerous processes. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, and it is also often more heavily cyclical in investment and employment. Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. Traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking, artillery production, locomotive erection, machine tool building, and the heavier types of mining. From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry and electrical industry developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, which was soon also true for the automotive industry and the aircraft industry. Modern shipbuilding since steel replaced wood is considered heavy industry. Large systems are often characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction of skyscrapers and large dams during the post–World War II era, and the manufacture/deployment of large rockets and giant wind turbines through the 21st century.

Light industry

Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods. Most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries. Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry. For that reason zoning laws are more likely to permit light industry near residential areas. One definition states that light industry is a "manufacturing activity that uses moderate amounts of partially processed materials to produce items of relatively high value per unit weight".

Agricultural machinery industry

The agricultural machinery industry or agricultural engineering industry is the part of the industry, that produces and maintain tractors, agricultural machinery and agricultural implements. This branch is considered to be part of the machinery industry.

Arms industry

The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology, and is a major component of the Military–industrial complex. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering, production, and servicing of military material, equipment, and facilities. Arms-producing companies, also referred to as arms dealers, defense contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states and for civilians. Departments of government also operate in the arms industry, buying and selling weapons, munitions and other military items. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition - whether privately or publicly owned - are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination. Products of the arms industry include guns, artillery, ammunition, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicles, ships, electronic systems, night-vision devices, holographic weapon sights, laser rangefinders, laser sights, hand grenades, landmines and more. The arms industry also provides other logistical and operational support. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SIPRI estimated military expenditures as of 2018 at $1822 billion. This represented a relative decline from 1990, when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry. The combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies and military services companies excluding China totalled $420 billion in 2018, according to SIPRI. This was 4.6 per cent higher than sales in 2017 and marks the fourth consecutive year of growth in Top 100 arms sales. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms-trade a figure that excludes domestic sales of arms. According to the institute, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2014–18 was 7.8 per cent higher than in 2009–13 and 23 per cent higher than in 2004–2008. The five largest exporters in 2014–18 were the United States, Russia, France, Germany and China whilst the five biggest importers were Saudi Arabia, India, Egypt, Australia and Algeria. Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries also have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by their own citizens, primarily for self-defense, hunting or sporting purposes. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many countries and regions affected by political instability. The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1.000 companies from nearly 100 countries. Governments award contracts to supply their countrys military; such arms contracts can become of substantial political importance. The link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described in 1961 as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces, commerce, and politics become closely linked, similarly to the European multilateral defense procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are often worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, as with the contract for the international Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, with the decision made on the merits of the designs submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place.

Celebrity–industrial complex

The celebrity-industrial complex is a social and economic construct which involves a symbiotic relationship between celebrities and business corporations. First proposed by Vanity Fair columnist Maureen Orth in her book, The Importance of Being Famous, it is fueled both by the celebrities seemingly continual search for fame and attention and the business corporations search for catchy headlines as well as viable name brands that could be sustained by such celebrities. In the celebrity-industrial complex, the celebrity either has a particular feature that is attractive to a public audience or is a victim of an occurrence that wins sympathy or condemnation from that same audience; this celebrity, for an initial period of time, becomes a subject of media scrutiny or marketing by properly funded media publication distributors. This media scrutiny, however, can often become a source of income for the celebrity, or the media scrutiny becomes an outlet of promotion for future manufactured publications or initiatives by the celebrities, and the media scrutiny around the celebrity expands to include coverage of such products. The term "celebrity-industrial complex" is an homage to the much older term military–industrial complex, which refers to a similar bilateral relationship between national militaries and industrial corporations which profit from each other.

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