ⓘ Encyclopedia | Business indices - Wiki ..

Book-to-bill ratio

The book-to-bill ratio, also known as the BB ratio or BO/BI ratio, is the ratio of orders received to the amount billed for a specific period, usually one month or one quarter. It is widely used in the technology sector and especially in the semiconductor industry, where the semiconductor manufacturing equipment book-to-bill ratio is considered an important leading indicator of demand trends. A book-to-bill ratio above one means that more orders were received than filled, indicating strong demand, while a ratio below one indicates weak demand.

Brand development index

The brand development index or BDI quantifies how well a brand performs in a market, compared with its average performance among all markets. That is, it measures the relative sales strength of a brand within a specific market.

Burn rate

Burn rate is the rate at which a company is losing money. It is typically expressed in monthly terms. E.g., "the companys burn rate is currently.000 per month." In this sense, the word "burn" is a synonymous term for negative cash flow. It is also measure for how fast a company will use up its shareholder capital. If the shareholder capital is exhausted, the company will either have to start making a profit, find additional funding, or close down. Burn rate can also refer to how quickly individuals spend their money, particularly their discretionary income. For example, Mackenzie Investments commissioned a test to gauge the spending and saving behavior of Canadians to determine if they are" Overspenders.” Burn rate is also used in project management to determine the rate at which hours allocated to a project are being used, to identify when work is going out of scope, or when efficiencies are being lost. The term is also used in biology, to refer to a persons basic metabolic rate; in rocketry, to refer to the rate at which a rocket is burning fuel; and in chemistry.

Category development index (marketing)

The category development index measures the sales performance of a category of goods or services in a specific group, compared with its average performance among all consumers. By definition, CDI measures the sales strength of a particular product category within a specific market.

Credit Managers' Index

The Credit Managers Index is a monthly economic indicator of financial activity reflecting credit managers responses to levels of favorable and unfavorable factors. The measure has been sourced in stories from publications such as the Wall Street Journal, CFO and Bloomberg. Tracked since February 2002, the CMI is produced by the National Association of Credit Management NACM and is currently conducted by Armada Corporate Intelligences Chris Kuehl, who also serves as NACMs economic advisor. The CMI is compiled through a voluntary poll of credit and finance professionals in the service and manufacturing sectors. The CMI results generally are released on the last business day of each month. A CMI number of more than 50 indicates an economy in expansion; less than 50 indicates contraction. Unlike many economic indexes, the CMI resisted the month-to-month swings during the most recent economic downturn. The index accurately signaled that the economic plunge was stabilizing and beginning to recover from the recession. The Chartered Institute of Credit Management CICM in the UK produces a similar Index on a quarterly basis reflecting its members responses to questions about the same factors and it uses the same methodology.

Dominance (economics)

Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings, exemplified by controlling a large proportion of the power in a particular market. Dominant positioning is both a legal concept and an economic concept and the distinction between the two is important when determining whether a firms market position is dominant. There is often a geographic element to the competitive landscape. In defining market dominance, one must see to what extent a product, brand, or firm controls a product category in a given geographic area. There are several ways of measuring market dominance. The most direct is market share. This is the percentage of the total market served by a firm or brand. A declining scale of market shares is common in most industries: that is, if the industry leader has say 50% share, the next largest might have 25% share, the next 12% share, the next 6% share, and all remaining firms combined might have 7% share. Market share is not a perfect proxy of market dominance. Although there are no hard and fast rules governing the relationship between market share and market dominance, the following are general criteria: A company, brand, product, or service that has a combined market share exceeding 60% most probably has market power and market dominance. A market share of over 35% but less than 60%, held by one brand, product or service, is an indicator of market strength but not necessarily dominance. A market share of less than 35%, held by one brand, product or service, is not an indicator of strength or dominance and will not raise anti-competitive concerns by government regulators. Market shares within an industry might not exhibit a declining scale. There could be only two firms in a duopolistic market, each with 50% share; or there could be three firms in the industry each with 33% share; or 100 firms each with 1% share. The concentration ratio of an industry is used as an indicator of the relative size of leading firms in relation to the industry as a whole. One commonly used concentration ratio is the four-firm concentration ratio, which consists of the combined market share of the four largest firms, as a percentage, in the total industry. The higher the concentration ratio, the greater the market power of the leading firms. Legally, the determination is often more complex. A case that can be used to define market dominance under EU Law is the United Brands v Commission The bananas’ case where the court of justice said, the dominant position thus referred to by Article case where it was Court held that the Commission must take a fresh approach to the market conditions each time it adopts a decision in relation to Art 102. There are different perspectives of what indicates dominance and how to go about establishing dominance. One of these being the perspective of the European Commission regarding their application of Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Formerly Article 82 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, that deals specifically with the abuse of dominance in the market regarding competition law. The European Commission equates dominance with the economic concept of substantial market power, which indicates that dominance can be exerted and abused, in its Guidance on A102 Enforcement Priorities. In paragraph 10 of the Guidance, it is stated that where there is no competitive pressure, an undertaking, which is a legal entity acting in the course of business, is probably able to exercise substantial market power. Furthermore, in paragraph 11, this is developed on, arguing if an undertaking can increase their products above the competitive price level, and does not face economic restraints, it is therefore dominant. For example, in basic terms, if two businesses are selling competing products, and one can increase their selling price, and not suffer an economic consequence such as a boycott of their products or a shift of their customers to a cheaper product, they are dominant. The Guidance is not law, it is instead a set of rules the courts are to follow. However, the same definition can be found elsewhere, in Chapter 3 of the Unilateral Conduct Workbook. The Guidance is also supported by paragraph 65 of the Commissions judgement in United Brands v Commission. 65 THE DOMINANT POSITION REFERRED TO IN THIS ARTICLE 102 RELATES TO A POSITION OF ECONOMIC STRENGTH ENJOYED BY AN UNDERTAKING WHICH ENABLES IT TO PREVENT EFFECTIVE COMPETITION BEING MAINTAINED ON THE RELEVANT MARKET BY GIVING IT THE POWER TO BEHAVE TO AN APPRECIABLE EXTENT INDEPENDENTLY OF ITS COMPETITORS, CUSTOMERS AND ULTIMATELY OF ITS CONSUMERS." The identification of the relevant and geographic market must first be established before being able to calculate shares or an undertaking’s dominance within that market. Dominance as an economic concept is determined within EU competition law through a 2-stage process, which first requires the identification of the relevant market was established in Continental Can v Commission. This was affirmed in paragraph 30 of the judgement of AstraZeneca AB v Commission, in which the Commission stated that it must be assessed whether an undertaking is able to act independently of its competitors, customers and consumers. The identification of the relevant and geographic market is assessed through the hypothetical monopolist test, which questions would a partys customer, switch to an alternative supplier located elsewhere, in response to a small relative price increase. Therefore, it is a question of interchangeability and demand substitutability, meaning whether one product can be a substitute for another, and whether an undertakings market power puts them above price competition. The second stage of the test requires the Commission to look at various factors to see if an undertaking enjoys a dominant position on that relevant market.

Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game →