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International business

International business refers to the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge across national borders and at a global or transnational scale. It involves cross-border transactions of goods and services between two or more countries. Transactions of economic resources include capital, skills, and people for the purpose of the international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, and construction. International business is also known as globalization. To conduct business overseas, multinational companies need to bridge separate national markets into one global marketplace. There are two macro-scale factors that underline the trend of greater globalization. The first consists of eliminating barriers to make cross-border trade easier. The second is technological change, particularly developments in communication, information processing, and transportation technologies.

Base erosion and profit shifting

Base erosion and profit shifting refers to corporate tax planning strategies used by multinationals to "shift" profits from higher-tax jurisdictions to lower-tax jurisdictions, thus "eroding" the "tax-base" of the higher-tax jurisdictions. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD define BEPS strategies as also "exploiting gaps and mismatches in tax rules"; however, academics proved corporate tax havens, who are the largest global BEPS hubs, use OECD–whitelisted tax structures and OECD–compliant BEPS tools. Corporate tax havens offer BEPS tools to "shift" profits to the haven, and additional BEPS tools to avoid paying taxes within the haven e.g. Irelands "CAIA tool". BEPS tools are associated mostly with U.S. technology and life science multinationals. Tax academics showed use of the BEPS tools by U.S. multinationals, via tax havens, maximised long–term U.S. exchequer receipts and shareholder return, at the expense of others.

BEEPS

The Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey is an extensive economic survey undertaken as a joint initiative of the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The BEEPS surveys are conducted in the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and gather information about key indicators on topics important for business environment such as problems doing Business, informal payments and corruption, Finance, Labor, Crime, Infrastructure, innovation, legal and judicial issues, taxation, customs and cross border trade, and more. Survey results are made public as The BEEPS-At-A-Glance Country Profiles as well as the Cross Country Report.

Binding corporate rules

Binding Corporate Rules or "BCRs" were developed by the European Union Article 29 Working Party to allow multinational corporations, international organizations, and groups of companies to make intra-organizational transfers of personal data across borders in compliance with EU Data Protection Law. The BCRs were developed as an alternative to the U.S. Department of Commerce EU Safe Harbor and the EU Model Contract Clauses. BCRs are required to be approved by the data protection authority in each EU Member State in which the organization will rely on the BCRs. The EU has developed a mutual recognition process under which BCRs approved by one member states data protection authority known as the "lead" authority and two other "co-lead" authorities, may be approved by the other relevant member states who may make comments and ask for amendments. Other members states, not part of mutual recognition process, will be also involved by the lead authority and will apply their own independent review process within a limited time-frame. The overall process for BCR acceptance takes usually between 6 and 9 months. This time frame does not include the required Data Protection setup, which should be already implemented within the company in order to comply with the current directive and its local implementation. BCRs typically form stringent, intra-corporate global privacy policies, set of practices, processes and guidelines that satisfy EU standards and may be available as an alternative means of authorizing transfers of personal data outside of Europe. BCRs should be seen as a framework for having different elements providing compliance with EU data protection regulations and effective privacy and data protection. It has to be noticed that, while originally designed for providing legal ground to international transfers, BCRs became de facto a corporation demonstration of its capacity to comply "at large" with personal data processing requirements. A corporation having BCRs applies this framework independently of international transfers and should be seen as part of the "Corporate Governance" or "Data Governance" The Article 29 Working Party issued several guidance documents on BCR content, acceptance criteria and submission process. BCRs by themselves do not "authorize" all transfers automatically for all EU member states. Most of member states still require a formal "transfer notification" which is normally granted if the BCRs have been accepted by the relevant country. The following companies have obtained authorizations for BCRs: Societe Generale with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Teleperformance Controller and Processor with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA eBay with the Luxemburg as the lead DPA HR Access with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Hyatt with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Motorola Mobility LLC with the ICO UK as the lead DPA DocuSign Controller and Processor with Irelands DPA as the lead DPA Safran with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Siemens Group with the DPA of Bavaria Germany as the lead DPA GlaxoSmithKline plc with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Zendesk International Limited Controller and Processor with Irelands DPA as the lead DPA Accenture with the ICO UK as the lead DPA American Express with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Deutsche Post DHL with the BfDI, Germany as the lead DPA Novartis with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA IMS Health Incorporated with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Sanofi Aventis with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Spencer Stuart with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Michelin with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Motorola Solutions, Inc. with the ICO UK as the lead DPA BP with the ICO UK as the lead DPA D.E. Master Blenders 1753 "DEMB" ex Sara Lee International B.V. indirect subsidiary of Sara Lee Corporation with the Dutch DPA Schneider Electric with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Hewlett Packard with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA AXA with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA ADP Controller and Processor with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA DSM with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA Shell International B.V. with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA Cisco, with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA Hermes with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Care Fusion with the ICO UK as the lead DPA First Data Corporation with the ICO UK as the lead DPA BMC Software Controller and Processor with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA LVMH with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Intel Corporation with Irelands DPA as the lead DPA ArcelorMittal Group with the Luxemburg DPA as the lead DPA Bristol-Myers Squibb with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA ING Bank N.V. with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA International SOS with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Atmel with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Citigroup with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Axa Private Equity with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA BT with the ICO UK as the lead DPA ABN AMRO Bank N.V. with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA Cargill, Inc. with the ICO UK as the lead DPA General Electric GE with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Royal Philips Electronics with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA Schlumberger Ltd. with the Dutch DPA Koninklijke DSM N.V. and affiliated companies with the Dutch DPA as the lead DPA OVH with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA CMA-CGM with the CNIL FR as the lead DPA Novo Nordisk A/S with the Danish DPA as the lead DPA Simon-Kucher & Partners Strategy & Marketing Consultants with DPA of North Rhine-Westphalia DE Linklaters with the ICO UK as the lead DPA JPMC with the ICO UK as the lead DPA Ernst & Young with the ICO UK as the lead DPA In addition, the Article 29 Working Party has introduced guidance for BCRs for processors also known as Processor BCR, as opposed to the traditional Controller BCR.

British business group

A British Business Group is an association or club of expatriate British business people. The aims of the group are typically to encourage trade with the host country and to provide a social environment for business networking. Typically a BBG will organize trade missions, lectures and social functions. Many BBGs fulfill a charitable role, although that is not a primary function. BBGs are often closely associated with the local British consulate or embassy, and with related organizations, such as the Middle East Association or the UKTI.

Business Model of Intercultural Analysis

The Business Model of Intercultural Analysis is a tool developed to address cross-cultural problems. The BMIA framework uses six comprehension lenses to analyze cross-cultural interaction in the business environment. The six comprehension lenses to examine enterprise-wide cross cultural challenges are cultural themes, communication, group dynamics, glocalization,’ process engineering, and time orientation.

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