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4–4–5 calendar

The 4–4–5 calendar is a method of managing accounting periods, and is a common calendar structure for some industries such as retail and manufacturing. The 4–4–5 calendar divides a year into four quarters of 13 weeks grouped into two 4-week "months" and one 5-week "month". The grouping of 13 weeks may also be set up as 5–4–4 weeks or 4–5–4. When this type of calendar is in use, reports with month-by-month comparisons or trends are flawed as one month is 25% longer than the other two. It could still compare a period to the same period in the prior year, or use week by week data comparisons. Its major advantage over a regular calendar is that the end date of the period is always the same day of the week, which is useful for shift or manufacturing planning as every period is the same length. A disadvantage of the 4–4–5 calendar is that it has only 364 days 7 days x 52 weeks, meaning a 53rd week will need to be added every five or six years: this can make year-on-year comparison difficult.

Abandonment rate

In marketing, abandonment rate is a term associated with the use of virtual shopping carts. Also known as "shopping cart abandonment". Although shoppers in brick and mortar stores rarely abandon their carts, abandonment of virtual shopping carts is quite common. Marketers can count how many of the shopping carts used in a specified period result in completed sales versus how many are abandoned. The abandonment rate is the ratio of the number of abandoned shopping carts to the number of initiated transactions or to the number of completed transactions.

List of abbreviations for market segments

RPO – Recruitment process outsourcing DIY – Do It yourself market FSS – Financial services sector H&LS – Health and life sciences ICT – Information & communication technology HoReCa – Hotel, restaurant, cafe ECS - Engineering and Construction Services Comms – Communications sector BPO – Business process outsourcing FMCG – Fast-moving consumer goods

Academy company

Academy company is a term used for an organization that is well known as a place to start a professional career and provides leaders to other companies. Often academy companies hire the majority of their staff from recent college and university graduates, and provide extensive training. Academy companies are frequently targeted by executive search firms as sources of talent. Often academy companies have "up or out" policies that facilitate organizational growth and development. Examples of academy companies: PepsiCo Procter & Gamble General Mills Kraft Foods Goldman Sachs JPMorgan Chase General Electric McKinsey & Company Bain & Company Boston Consulting Group Hewlett-Packard Unilever

Acquisition initiation (ISPL)

Acquisition Initiation is the initial process within the Information Services Procurement Library and is executed by a customer organization intending to procure Information Services. The process is composed of two main activities: the making of the acquisition goal definition and the making of the acquisition planning. During the acquisition initiation, an iterative process arises in which questions about the goal of the acquisition are usually asked. In response to these questions the Library provides details of the requirements, covering areas such as cost, feasibility and timelines. An example of such requirements is the "planning of the acquisition", a component that may also lead to more questions about the acquisition goal. The process-data model shown in the following section displays the acquisition initiation stages. It shows both the process and the data ensuing from the process, and parts of the image will also be used as references in the body of this article. The concepts and data found in the model are explained in separate tables which can be found in the section immediately following the model. A textual, and more thorough, explanation of the activities and concepts that make up the Acquisition Initiation process can be found in the remainder of this article.


Adaptability is a feature of a system or of a process. This word has been put to use as a specialised term in different disciplines and in business operations. Word definitions of adaptability as a specialised term differ little from dictionary definitions. According to Andresen and Gronau adaptability in the field of organizational management can in general be seen as an ability to change something or oneself to fit to occurring changes. In ecology, adaptability has been described as the ability to cope with unexpected disturbances in the environment. With respect to business and manufacturing systems and processes, adaptability has come to be seen increasingly as an important factor for their efficiency and economic success. In contrast, adaptability and efficiency are held to be in opposition to each other in biological and ecological systems, requiring a trade-off, since both are important factors in the success of such systems. To determine the adaptability of a process or a system, it should be validated concerning some criteria.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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